“Gravity,” which is actually weak, “Electromagnetic force,” which also works when we touch things.
It is known that there are “four forces” in this world. For example, “gravity” seems very strong, pulling our bodies to the earth, and creating stars, black holes, and other celestial bodies. However, it is actually the weakest of the “four forces.” This can be explained by the fact that even a tiny magnet sticking to a steel plate will not fall off. The tiny magnet’s magnetic force (electromagnetic force) is stronger than the gravitational force generated by the large earth.
The magnet does not fall because the magnetic force (electromagnetic force) is stronger than the gravity.
“Electromagnetic force” refers to electric power and magnetic force. Electromagnetic forces work when we touch things as well as when we use electrical appliances. Our bodies and materials are made up of numerous atoms, with electrons revolving around the nucleus at the center. When we touch something, negatively charged electrons repel each other, and there is actually a small distance between our hands and the material.
Electromagnetic forces are acting between the hand and the ball.
The “strong force” that makes up matter, the “weak force” that changes particles
Electromagnetic forces also work when nuclei (+) and electrons (-) are bound together to form an atom. The nucleus consists of protons (+) and neutrons without charge. The “strong force,” which is stronger than the repulsive electrical force between protons, prevents the nucleus from falling apart. This force connects subatomic particles called quarks together to form protons and neutrons. As the name implies, it is very strong force, but the force range is so short that we do not feel it in the everyday world.
The “weak force” is so named because it is weaker than the electromagnetic force. We usually don’t feel the weak force, but it plays an important role in transforming various particles into other particles, such as causing the beta decay of atomic nuclei.
These “forces” are actually carried by elementary particles. The electromagnetic force is transmitted by “photons (light),” the strong force by “gluons,” and the weak force by “W bosons” and “Z bosons.” (Gravity is thought to be transmitted by gravitons, but this has not yet been discovered.) The force works when matter particles throw such “force-carrying particles” at each other. The reason why the “weak force” is so weak can be attributed to the fact that the “W boson” and “Z boson” are very heavy (the weight of 80 to 90 protons) and difficult to throw.
[The “strong force” and the “weak force” work in the world of particles such as atoms.